Key command summary
Graphical notation navigation
After selecting a note or rest in the graphical notation, you can move to other notes in the score melodically or harmonically. Use the left key to move the previous melodic note, right key to move the next melodic note, up key to move the next higher harmonic note in the score, and down key to move the next lower harmonic note in the score,
Below is a demonstration of the arrow keys in action. Notice that harmonic navigation wraps around, so that attempting to go up beyond the top note in the score will wrap the cursor to the bottom harmonic note at that point in the score.
Also note that there must be a note or rest at the same timestamp on a staff or layer; otherwise that staff or layer will be skipped. Also note that the cursor in the text editor to the left is updated to match the currently selected note/rest. And finally note that moving melodically of of a page will cause the next/previous page to be loaded.
Notes can be transposed to a different staff-line or space by clicking on a note and then using the shift-up and shift-down arrow keys to move it vertically. Below is a demonstration where the D5 pitch is moved down by step to D4:
Notice that as the note moves down in the notation editor, the corresponding note in the Humdrum data will change automatically to match the new pitch of the note in the notation.
Transposing by diatonic interval
If you need to transpose a note by more than a step at a time, a faster transposition method prefixes the shift-up or shift-down keystroke with a digit from 3 through 9 to transpose up or down by that diatonic interval:
Transposing by octave
The keystrokes control-up/control-down can be used as a shortcut to transpose a note by an octave. This is equivalent to 8+shift-up/8+shift-down.
Accidentals can be added to a selected note by pressing minus for a flat, hash for a sharp, and n for a natural. To add a double-flat or double-sharp, prefix the accidental keystroke with the digit 2.
Repeating the same accidental on a note that already has that accidental will remove the accidental from the note. An easy way to remove any accidental other than a natural sign would be to type n+n: once to convert the accidental into a natural sign, and another to remove the natural sign (the note will still possess an implicit natural, however).
Printed vs. sounding accidentals
**kern pitches always encode sounding accidentals. VHV
automatically calculates visual accidentals when converting to
MEI for rendering to graphic music
However there can be exceptions to the visual accidental calculation rules, which are demonstrated in the sub-sections below.
- forced accidentals: the accidental can be forced to display on a selected note by pressing x.
- suppressed accidentals: don’t show the accidental regardless of whether or not it should be shown. (not currently available in graphic editing).
Below is a demonstration of changing accidentals in the music. Notice that altering the accidental on one a note may automatically add a different visual accidental on a following note in the measure.
As demonstrated in the above figure, if a grace note has a printed
accidental, the next note on the same staff line or space in the
measure will be given a forced accidental. If you don’t want this
automatic courtesy accidental add a
y after the accidental in the
Accidentals can be forced to display in the notation by typing the
key x while editing a note (mnemonic:
eXplicit). This will add the character
X (capital x) after
the accidental for the note data, which means to explicitly show
the accidental in the notation. Forced accidentals are typically
used to remind a performer that the note has the given accidental,
such as when an accidental is canceled by a barline and a note in
the following measure is spelled according to the key signature
again. Forced accidentals used for this purpose are called courtesy
or cautionary accidentals.
Natural signs (
**kern data are automatically treated as
forced accidentals when converting Humdrum data into notation. To
create a forced natural, you should instead type n to add a natural sign.
n for an explicit natural rather than
nX which is a doubly explicit natural sign, and (3)
X should be removed when deleting an accidental from the note (converting the accidental into an implicit natural).
VHV will automatically suppress printed accidentals on notes that otherwise require them if they are tied over from previous measures:
Explicitly suppressing visual accidentals cannot be done within the notation editor
(yet), but this can be accomplished by adding a single
y after the
accidental in the text editor.
Ornaments containing auxiliary accidentals will automatically force an accidental on a following note if it is different from that of the auxiliary accidental.
The VHV notation editor allows toggling of accidentals between regular and editorial forms. Press i to switch between these two types of accidentals.
To indicate an editorial accidental, an RDF signifier has to be added to the data:
!!!RDF**kern: i = editorial accidental
Any user-signifier other than
i can also be used. If no editorial
accidental RDF is found in the data, one will be inserted at the
bottom of the Humdrum content automatically; otherwise, the signifier
for an existing editorial accidental RDF entry will be used (even
if it is not
Editorial accidentals will always be forced to display, so adding
a forced display signifier (
X) with the x
key is not necessary.
Styling editorial accidentals
By default editorial accidentals are displayed as small accidentals above the note. This is the most common editorial accidental style for Renaissance music. For music that includes basso continuo numbers or chords, editorial accidentals are typically displayed within brackets or occasionally parentheses.
Adding the string
on the editorial accidental RDF line will move the
editorial accidentals in front of the notes and place brackets
Any user signifier can be used for editorial accidentals, but the last
RDF line in a file is given priority for adding/removing editorial state
of accidentals when using the
i graphical editing command.