A tutorial on how to encode barlines in **kern data.


Barlines are indicated by a token starting with an equals sign. A optional number can immediately follow the equals sign, representing a measure number. VHV will display the bar number at each system break, excluding a label for measure 1:

Following the measure number can be an optional styling for the barline. - means an invisible barline, || is a double thin barline, |!: is a left-repeat, :|!|: is a left-right repeat. A special style is ==, representing a final barline. This bar usually does not include a bar number, since it is the last one in the piece/movement.

Humdrum can represent more barline styles, but the above types are currently supported in verovio.

Pick-up measures

Typically the initial barline should be labeled in the Humdrum encoding even though it is not printed. Either =1 or =1- should be used at the start of the first measure (with - meaning an invisible barline), but the starting barline will be automatically suppressed if it is a regular barline. Labeling the first bar is necessary if you need to extract it by measure number with a tool such as myank.

Pickup beats do not have a barline at their start. If a measure does not match the duration of the time signature at the start of the music and the data does not start with a barline, it will be automatically interpreted as a pick-up measure and automatically assigned 0 as the measure number for use with the myank filter.

Here is example music with a pick-up beat, and a typical ending that drops the duration of the pickup measure: