A description of how to encode harmonics in **kern spines.

Natural harmonics

Natural harmonics are encoded at their sounding pitch and a small letter o is added to the note to indicate that it is a natural harmonic:

Fingered harmonics

Fingered harmonics consist of three components: a stopped note, a lightly-touched note on a node of the harmonic, and the sounding pitch. The stopped and touched notes do not make a sound, so they are encoded as rests, while the sounding note is encoded as a regular note.

When encoded as rests, the stopped and touched note rests are given a pitch as demonstrated in the following example for the third harmonic on violins:

Note that the lightly touched note is automatically displayed as a diamond-shaped note.

The sounding note can be hidden by adding yy to the sounding note:

Or the sounding note can be displayed while the non-sounding notes hidden in a similar manner:

Harmonic symbols can be added to the sounding note in such cases:

Adding o to the sounding fingered harmonic pitch is useful for analytic purposes, and it can be hidden by adding a single y immediately after the o:

Fourth harmonic

Fourth harmonics are created by touching the string a perfect forth above the stopped string, producing a sounding note two octaves above the stopped string.